The butterfly head consists of a sphere, a straight edge of a cylinder of a certain height and a transition part connecting the two parts whose radius of curvature is smaller than the radius of the sphere. The dished head is a continuous surface. At the junction of the three parts, there is a sudden change in the radius of curvature of the meridian. Because of the change of curvature, there is a bending stress. The result of superposition of bending stress and tensile stress makes the stress of this part protrude from other parts. Compared with the elliptical head, the stress distribution is not as uniform, but it is easier to process, so it is not ideal in engineering application. But when it is difficult to process the mould of the elliptical head, the dished head is used instead.
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